Third M.I.T. Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics June 14–17, 2005  

Modeling active muscle behavior for emergency braking simulations

M. Behrb,*, P.J. Arnouxb, T. Serreb, K. Kayvantasha, C. Brunetb
aMECALOG sarl, BU Safety and Biomechanics, Bld Pierre Dramard, 13916 Marseille Cedex 20, France
bLaboratoire de Biomécanique Appliquée, INRETS/UnivMed, Bld Pierre Dramard 13016 Marseille, France

  Full Text
Numerical and physical models used in car crash simulations hardly take into account the active behavior of car occupants, in terms of positions and muscular contractions. However, muscles seem to have a significant influence on kinematics and energy dissipation at least up to a reasonable acceleration level. We present in this paper a finite element musculoskeletal model developed for the RADIOSS crash code [14], focusing on lower limbs, which offers the possibility to reproduce muscular activity of car occupants in crash situations. Skeletal muscle mechanical behavior is based on a phenomenological approach, and depends on a reduced number of input parameters. In terms of geometry, muscles are represented with visco-elastic solids that are controlled in the direction of fibers by a set of 1D contractile springs. Validation has been achieved by the observation of movements resulting from particular contraction configurations and by comparing simulations and previously performed experiments on volunteers.

Keywords:  Biomechanics; Muscles; Simulation; Emergency braking; Crashworthiness; Injury mechanism

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +33 4 91 51 91 26; E-mail: